Updated 3.20.15



Check out the new AJFO website!

2015 AJFO Workshops

APFO is happy to announce that the Connecticut Women’s Consortium has been selected as the host for the 2015 Training. Look for upcoming announcements around the first of the year.


APFO Issues Request For Proposals for 2017 Conference.
See RFP 2017 Tab



A Women’s Typology of Pathways to Serious Crime
With Custody and Treatment Implications (2015)


Criminal career patterns, social context and features, psychological factors, potential matches in prior pathways research, sub-types, and treatment goals are provided for the following types of women's pathways to crime: "Type 1 - Quasi-Normal non-violent women with drug/alcohol issues"; "Type 2 - Lifelong Victims, many of whom have abusive partners, drug problems and depression"; "Type 3 - Socialized Subcultural Pathways, poor and marginalized but with low victimization and few mental health problems"; "Type 4 - Aggressive Antisocial, high risk/high need and victimized, mental health issues"; [and] women offenders not classified. Authored by Brennan, Tim.




You may find out more about APFO at www.apfonews.org or contact Bronwyn A. Hunter, President of APFO, info@apfonews.org





Association on Programs for Female Offenders
Treasurer Report
Year End Statement
2012 -2013

Beginning Balance  
  Donation — 2011 Workshop
$ 1.25
  ACA Affiliate Dues
$ 150.00
  Website work/design
$ 150.00
  P. 0. Box Rental Fee
  APFO Breakfast Meeting
$ 53440
  Web HostinglDomain Registration
$ 285.00
  Website — Ajfo.org
$ 225.00
  Summer Meeting Refreshments
$ 210.00
  Bank Charges
$ 24.00
-$1 ,764A0
$ 13,819.01
Encumbered Funds:  
  Research Account
Available Balance:  

JULY O1, 2010---JUNE 30, 2013

Beginning Balance:
$ 25,690.14
Seed money withdrawal-Utah -$ 15,000.00
$ 10,690.14
Seed money deposited-Utah +$ 15,000.00


Seed money withdrawal-Maine(for Hotel) -$ 6,250.00
Remaining Balance of Seed money withdrawal-Maine -$ 8,750.00
Ending Balance:




Member Meeting— Gaylord National Resort
Sun dayAugust 11,2013 * 3:00 pm
ACA Summer Meeting, National Harbor, MD


  • Call to Order

  • Welcome and Introductions

  • Treasurer’s Report 2012 - 2013

  • Officers
    • President — Gregory V Smith (PA)

    • Vice-President — Dawn Pearson (MD)

    • Treasurer — Judy Anderson (SC)

    • Secretary — Tina Ladner (MS)

    • Past Conference Chair — Nanon Talley (UT)

  • News about 15 Bi-annual AJFO Training Portland Maine 2013

  • Requests for Proposals for the 16 Bi Workshops 2015

  • President

    • Update on Web-site apfonews.org

    • Plans for Newsletter

    • New logo

    • Brief History

    • Status SOlc(3) & whether to incorporate

  • Announcements on upcoming WWIC Conference

  • Next Meeting of APFO



Request for Proposals for the 17th Bi-annual Association of Juvenile and Female Offenders Conference in 2017

Since 1985, The Association of Programs for Female Offenders (APFO) bi-annually co-sponsors a national conference, The Association of Female and Juvenile Offenders Conference (AJFO) in an effort to educate correctional systems, programs and communities on how to effectively address accountability, competency development and the gender specific needs of women and girls who are involved in the criminal justice system.

Conference attendees represent a diverse array of corrections officers, practitioners, state administrators, policy makers, program directors, women with lived experience, advocates, researchers, and program developers. The conference has traditionally been attended by more than 500 professionals from federal, state and local correctional systems, as well as treatment providers and researchers from the United States, Canada and other countries. This is the only national professional conference that is exclusively focused on women and girls involved with the justice system. The goal is to provide professionals with resources that support women, strengthen families, and empower communities who are affected by the justice system.

The APFO Executive Committee is pleased to announce that we are currently accepting applications for agencies interested in hosting the 2017 Association of Juvenile and Female Offenders Conference. Please review the following information about hosting the conference, submission requirements and deadlines.

To support the host, APFO provides:

1. Templates, materials and budgets from past conferences;
2. Budgets from past conferences;
3. Access to email databases from past conferences;
4. Technical support from the executive committee;
5. Seed money for expenses in an amount of $15,000 to be returned to AJFO at the end of the conference.

Information for applicants:
Any major state agency or consortium of agencies and/or groups can host the conference, including colleges and universities, health organizations and/or other law enforcement organizations. Host agencies commit to:

• Account for, manage and maintain records of funds (receipts and expenses);
• Obtain a federal tax ID number for agencies to use for registration and other activities;
• Develop web-based communication tools, including updates for the conference website (www.ajfo.org) and contact email lists;
• Find a location that is easily accessible to major airlines and capable of supporting a conference of approximately 400 - 750 participants. The Hotel Site should include space for several simultaneous workshops, general sessions, and exhibit space. Previous conferences have been held in Tulsa, OK; Baltimore, MD; Minneapolis, MN; Boise, ID; Myrtle Beach, SC; Jackson, MS; Salt Lake City, UT; Portland, ME; and Hartford CT;
• Establish a multi-disciplinary sub-committee structure to plan and manage the conference;
• Raise money for expenses that are not covered by registration fees. Activities often include contacting previous sponsors, selling ads for the conference program, assessing fees for exhibit space from for-profit and non-profit companies, and obtaining donations ads and exhibits should be consistent with the goals of the conference to improve services for women and girls in the criminal justice system.
• Identify key stakeholders capable of developing and coordinating a conference program that is national in scope and includes the latest research and information on state of the art programs, policies and practices in working with justice involved women and girls.

• At the end of the conference, the host agency is expected to provide APFO:

o A $25 fee for each registrant. This fee sustains APFO and supports technical assistance, as well as web hosting and developmental fees that are provided during the planning process in addition to $15,000 in seed money. For example, if 400 participants attend the conference, 400 x $25 = $10,000 + $15,000 seed money = $25,000 returned to APFO;
o A report that describes the major activities in planning, promoting, and conducting the conference as well as a complete accounting of actual revenue and expenses. This report should be emailed to the APFO Executive Committee by January 15, 2018.

Interested applicants should submit the following information:

1. A letter of support from the chief executive officer or Secretary of Corrections of the agency or group primarily responsible for the conference;
2. Letters of support from local collaborating organizations (i. e. academic institutions, non-profit organizations);
3. A 3-4 page application that addresses the following:
a. A brief description of the primary hosting agency;
b. Resources that can support the conference;
c. The host agency’s capacity to:

i. Account for the money and maintain records and receipts
ii. Obtain a Federal tax ID number
iii. Develop web based communication tools
iv. Establish a multi-disciplinary committee and sub-committee structure
v. Raise money, in the form of sponsorships, to support the conference
vi. Identify key stakeholders capable of developing a conference program
d. A brief description of potential conference locations within the state that are large enough to host the conference.

Submission of Proposal and Deadline
Your proposal may be submitted electronically to bhunter@umbc.edu by December 1, 2015. To allow for adequate time planning the conference, the Executive Committee will notify the host site by December 15, 2015.

Contact Information

For questions, please contact Bronwyn Hunter at bhunter@umbc.edu or (410) 455-8161. Additional contact information for Executive Committee members is listed below:

Bronwyn A. Hunter
President, Association of Programs for Female Offenders
(410) 455-8161

Dawn Pearson
Vice President, Association of Programs for Female Offenders
Cell: (410) 935-8174
Work: (410) 941-9335

Amanda Elliott
Treasurer, Association of Programs for Female Offenders
(517) 373-0198

Erica Hansen King
Executive Committee, Association of Programs for Female Offenders
(207) 228-8318

Colette Anderson, LCSW
Executive Committee, Association of Programs for Female Offenders
(203) 909-6888 Ext. 32

Nanon Talley
Executive Committee, Association of Programs for Female Offenders

Greg Smith
Past President, Association of Programs for Female Offenders
(570) 326-7220


Short History of the Association of Programs for Female Offenders

Mary Q. Hawkes, Editor APFO newsletter (Summer 1999) as abstracted from Hawkes, Excellent Effect: The Edna Mahan Story (ACA, 1994)

APFO’s history goes back to the 1912 National Prison congress when an Association of Women Members was created so that the “ladies could get together for mutual help and advice [and so there would] be given a time on the program when women who were directly concerned and interested in the work for women prisoners should have an opportunity to emphasize this very important work”. The association met through 1917. There was no Prison Congress in 1918 and the association did not pick up in 1919.

The participation of women in the Congresses grew during the 1920s and in 1929 at the annual business meeting of the American Prison Association a resolution was adopted to establish a Women’s Committee “for the purpose of affording official recognition of this special group”. This committee (renamed in 1936 the Committee on Women’s Institutions) was primarily composed of women executives. It met through 1947 and then collapsed due to lack of leadership.

At the 1960 annual Congress of Corrections the Committee on Women’s Institutions was reborn as the Women’s Correctional Association (WCA). The beginnings and goals of the WCA are recounted in the May 1989 APFO Newsletter: “1. Provide a forum in which this special interest group could meet during ACA Congresses; 2. Design ways to keep in touch between Congresses; 3. Establish a mechanism for impacting Congress programming “.

WCA was active throughout the sixties and the membership remained primarily top administrative staff of women’s institutions. However, major changes took place in the correctional field in the late sixties and seventies which forced a realignment of WCA. As a result of these changes women began to infiltrate ACA and the correctional field. No longer did women have to remain working in the women’s spheres where opportunities for advancement were limited.

In 1974 WCA became the Association on Programs for Female Offenders (editor’s note: the name was changed to the Association of Programs for Female Offenders in 2010), an affiliate of the ACA, targeted to female offender issues. It continues its leadership role as an advocacy group for female offenders.

Gregory V Smith, President
Executive Director, Transitional Living Centers, Inc.

Dawn Pearson, Vice-President APFO, Assistant Director, Institutional Training, Maryland Department of Public Safety and Correctional Services

Nanon Talley, Chairperson Steering Committee for the 14th AJFO Training Conference, Salt Lake City, UT.; Program Manager for Female Programs in Juvenile Justice Services, Utah.

Tina Ladner, APFO Secretary, Associate Warden CMCF, Mississippi Department of Corrections

Judy Anderson, Treasurer APFO;
Warden, Camille Griffin Graham CI, South Carolina Department of Corrections.

By-Laws of the Association of Programs for Female Offenders

Adopted August 20, 1996 in Nashville, TN

Article I


  • Eligibility: Membership in this Association shall be open to those professionally working in corrections or related fields and any interested individuals.
  • Voting Rights: The power of electing officers and voting on Association policy shall be confined to the members of APFO who have paid their annual dues for that year.
  • Resignation: any member may resign by filing a written resignation with the Secretary.

Article II

Meetings of Members

  • Annual Meetings: An Annual Meeting will be held in conjunction with the American Correctional Association’s annual Congress of Corrections.
  • Notice of Meetings: Notice stating place, day, and hour will be made to each member entitled to vote at such meetings.

Article III


  • General Powers: The affairs of the Association between Annual Meetings shall be managed by the Association officers who will constitute the Executive Committee.
  • Number of Officers: There shall be four (4) officers: President; Vice President (who shall serve as program chairperson); Treasurer; and Secretary.
  • Election and Tenure: The election of officers shall take place at the annual Meeting and they will serve for a period of two years.
  • Vacancies: If an officer vacancy should occur, the Executive Committee shall appoint a member to serve until such time as the next Annual Meeting.
  • President: The President shall be the principal executive officer and shall, in general, supervise all the business and affairs of the Association in accordance with Executive Committee decisions. The President shall preside at all meetings and appoint Committee Chairs.
  • Vice President: In the absence of the President or in the event of the President’s inability to act, the Vice President shall perform the duties of the President and, when so acting, shall have all the powers of the President. The Vice President shall perform such other duties that from time to time may be assigned to him/her by the President or that may be required when acting as program chairperson.
  • Secretary: The Secretary shall keep the minutes of all meetings; be the custodian of the Association’s records; and perform all the duties that may periodically assigned by the President.
  • Treasurer: The Treasurer shall be responsible for all funds of the Association; give and receive receipts for dues and other funds; deposit all such money in the name of the Association; keep a register of all members and their addresses; cause a biannual audit to be performed; and perform all the duties that may periodically be assigned by the President. The Treasurer will also establish a separate and maintain an accounting record for the National Workshop on Female Offenders (NWFO). Disbursement from this NWFO fund will be made on the recommendation of the Executive Committee.
  • Immediate Past President: The immediate past President of this Association will be a member of the Executive Committee.

Article IV


  • The goals and objectives of the Association shall be promoted by the organization of specialized committees:
    • Executive Committee shall be composed of the four (4) elected officers and the immediate past APFO President. The Committee shall be responsible for the management of the Association’s affairs between Annual Meetings.
    • Policy, Resolutions, Standards, and Review Committee shall develop the policy statements of the Association which will be voted upon by the membership at the Annual Meeting. In addition, upon request of the Executive Committee, this committee shall review other organizations’ policies and standards that may have an impact upon female offenders and make recommendations to the Executive Committee for appropriate action.
    • Research, Survey, and Program Evaluation Committee shall determine research needs and encourage the development of studies which strive to upgrade and improve correctional programs and services for female offenders.
    • Membership Committee shall solicit members and help maintain present membership and encourage greater participation by all members.
    • ACA Workshop and Conference Committee shall develop programs and workshops to be sponsored and co-sponsored by the Association at the annual meeting of the American Correctional Association, of which the Association is an affiliate. The Committee shall provide technical assistance for regional, state, and local organizations who solicit information on female offender programs.
    • Publication Committee shall facilitate information sharing within the membership through the publication of a periodic newsletter.
    • Nominating Committee shall present a slate of officers to be voted upon at every other Annual Meeting.
    • National Workshop on Female Offenders Committee shall consist of the past chairs or designees of the National Workshops and the Executive Committee of APFO. Duties will include assistance with recruitment of host states for the Workshop; coordination between the immediate past Workshop and the proposed Workshop; planning; fundraising; publicity assistance; and other support activities to the current host state as appropriate and requested.
    • Ad Hoc Committee shall be organized at the discretion of the Executive Committee and/or the membership for completion of assigned duties.

Article V

Amendments to the By-Laws

These By-Laws may be altered, amended, or repealed and new By-Laws may be adopted by a two-thirds majority of members present at the Annual Meeting. Changes, amendments, or other actions involving the by-laws must be provided in writing to the membership at least thirty (30) days prior to the Annual Meeting.

Membership Form



Membership Dues are $25.00 annually from the date you join.

If you join APFO by December 31st, your membership will be good until December 31, 2015. Two years for the price of one! Print and mail the form below with a check or be billed by email. Membership supports future AJFO workshops, gives you advance notice for registration, and supports advocacy of Programs for Female Offenders.






City/State/Zip: ______________________________________

Phone________________________    Fax: _______________


 Check Enclosed _______      Please bill me at my email address ___________

Send to:
Attn: Judy Anderson, APFO Treasurer
P.O. Box 5293
Columbia, South Carolina 29250-5293




  • Recently Released - Gender Responsive Discipline and Sanctions Policy Guide for Women’s Facilities

    01/27/2015 09:34 AM EST

    From the National Resource Center on Justice Involved Women, this guide is “designed to assist corrections professionals in revising discipline and sanctions policies and practices to more effectively manage women inmates, and create safer facilities for staff and inmates. It builds on a growing body of research and practice that supports an approach to discipline and sanctions tailored to women inmates.  It also provides a synopsis of American Correctional Association (ACA) standards, and case law relevant to discipline and sanctions policies and practices for women.”
    The guide is divided into six sections:

    1. Overview:  Provides a rationale for revising discipline and sanctions in women's facilities, including the benefits and challenges of engaging in this work.
    2. Process:  Describes a step-by-step process for reviewing and revising discipline and sanctions policies and practices.  Includes ten components to consider when revising policies.
    3. Research Implications:  Provides implications for revising discipline and sanctions policies and practices based on research from multiple disciplines.
    4. Integrating Research & Practice with ACA Standards:  Reviews seven ACA standards regarding "Rules and Discipline" and how they can be adapted to meet the needs of women inmates and women's facilities.  Each standard includes a set of self-assessment questions.
    5. Legal Issues:  Provides an overview of relevant case law pertaining to discipline and sanctions in women's correctional facilities.
    6. Research Findings:  Provides a discussion of the foundational research that forms the basis for the concepts and recommendations discussed throughout the guide.

    Access the full guide

  • Women in Detention: A Guide to Gender-Sensitive Monitoring (2013)

    04/23/2014 03:20 PM EDT

    Individuals who want an up-to-date understanding of gender-responsive issues and all those who work with female offenders should read this document report. It “outlines the risks faced by women deprived of their liberty of being subjected to torture and ill-treatment and measures that can be taken to reduce such risks. The main focus of the paper is the situation of women in detention in the criminal justice system, though the discussion is in many cases equally relevant to women deprived of liberty in other contexts, such as psychiatric institutions and immigration detention facilities” (p. 3). Sections contained in this document include: introduction to gender-specific treatment; why monitoring bodies should look at this issue; concepts—gender and gender mainstreaming, and discrimination and violence against women; risk factors and measures to reduce risk—certain contexts which heighten risk, certain times that heighten risk, certain policies and practices that heighten risk or cause physical or mental suffering, and certain categories of women who are at heightened risk(girls, victims of human trafficking and sex workers, women with mental healthcare needs, and other groups; and the qualities monitoring bodies need to be effective in this endeavor. SOURCE: Penal Reform International (PRI). Strengthening Institutions and Building Civil Society Capacity to Combat Torture in 9 CIS Countries (London, England); Association for the Prevention of Torture (APT) (Geneva, Switzerland). Authored by Atabay, Tomris.

  • Webinar: Girls at Risk: A Trauma-Informed Approach (2013)

    04/23/2014 02:14 PM EDT

    “With the increased awareness of the impact of trauma on girls’ lives, juvenile justice and community professionals are beginning to consider what this means in their specific settings. There is a growing evidence base documenting the impact of relationship violence and sexual assault (as well as other forms of trauma) on health, mental health and behavior. This Webinar explores the specifics of becoming trauma-informed, as well as the guiding principles for gender-responsive services. Learning objectives are: define the terms trauma-informed and gender-responsive; discuss the process of trauma; and provide specific examples of effective interventions for girls.” This website provides access to the webinar, a transcript, and slides from the overall broadcast and those slides specifically for Dr. Covington’s presentation. SOURCE: National Girls Institute (NGI); National Council on Crime and Delinquency (NCCD) (Oakland, CA); National Training and Technical Assistance Center (NTTAC) (Washington, DC). Authored by Covington, Stephanie S.; Wolf, Angie; Long, Callie.

  • New Resource: Using Trauma-Informed Practices to Enhance Safety and Security in Women’s Correctional Facilities

    04/22/2014 09:35 AM EDT

    From the National Resource Center on Justice Involved Women: One of the most common experiences shared by women in correctional facilities is a history of trauma, which for many can be extensive. Research from multiple disciplines has shown that the effects of trauma can be significant and long lasting. We now know that trauma often plays a role in the onset of women’s criminal behavior, is often linked to substance abuse and mental health challenges, and that trauma may explain some of the behaviors women offenders display while incarcerated. This document provides a brief overview of trauma and its effects on women offenders, and specifically defines trauma-informed practices for women’s correctional facilities. It also provides key actions that facility administrators, managers, and staff can take to better align their operational practices with the research on trauma and to create a more trauma-informed facility culture.

    The publication can be downloaded at NIC Women Offenders Resources (under Substance Abuse, Behavioral Health and Trauma) and at the National Resource Center on Justice Involved Women.

  • Just Released: Best Practices in the Use of Restraints with Pregnant Women and Girls under Correctional Custody

    04/22/2014 09:30 AM EDT

    As a member of the National Task Force on the Use of Restraints with Pregnant Women under Correctional Custody, the National Institute of Corrections (NIC) is proud to announce the release of principles and operational practices to guide the use of restraints with pregnant women and girls under correctional custody. The work of the Task Force and the development of the publication were sponsored by the U.S. Department of Justice. Maureen Buell, Correctional Program Specialist for NIC, participated as a task force member.

    Historically, correctional policies regarding the use of restraints were designed to ensure the safety and security of correctional staff and inmates in correctional institutions with predominantly male populations; however, the demographics of the justice involved population are shifting to include women and girls in growing numbers. Currently, approximately 1.3 million women are under the authority of the criminal justice system, with approximately 209,000 women held in jails and prisons. Almost three-quarters of the women in state and federal prisons are mothers (a 122 percent increase since 1991). Between three and five percent of female prisoners report being pregnant at the time of admission or intake to a correctional facility.

    The release of new principles and operational practices guiding the use of restraints with pregnant women and girls provides a starting point for individual organizations to use in developing effective internal policies, procedures, and practices that maximize safety and minimize risk for pregnant women and girls, their fetuses/newborns, and correctional and medical staff. The recommendations emphasize the collaborative development (between correctional leaders and medical staff) of written policies and procedures on the use of restraints, based on the recognition that the unique healthcare needs of women and girls are not addressed by most standard custody management policies. The principles emphasize the need to balance the safety, health, and well-being of pregnant women and girls and their fetuses/newborns with partners such as care givers, corrections staff, and medical staff. Among the five elements outlined in the document is that the use of restraints on pregnant women and girls be limited to absolute necessity.

    The publication can be downloaded at NIC Women Offenders Resources (under Physical Health) and at the National Resource Center on Justice Involved Women.

    Questions regarding the publication and the work of the Task Force can be directed to Madeline Carter, Principal, Center for Effective Public Policy, cartermm@cepp.com

  • Gender Responsiveness Action Plan at Gig Harbor

    Based on a 10-year study from the University of Cincinnati, the Washington Department of Corrections has created a “Gender Responsiveness Action Plan”.  The Plan was launched in the spring at the Washington Corrections Center for women in Gig Harbor, WA.  Elements of the Plan include educational programs and prison classification tailored around female inmates.

  • Gender Differences in Alcohol Treatment

  • Female Felons in Oklahoma Face Unique Employment Challenges | StateImpact Oklahoma

  • National Resource Center on Justice Involved Women

  • Pathways Project--Research Factsheet: Mental Health & Trauma among Women in Jails (2012)

Email us at info@apfonews.org